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Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues 6ed

by Gus Martin SAGE Publications, Inc
Pub Date:
Ebk 552 pages
AU$101.00 NZ$105.22
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Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues offers a multidisciplinary, comprehensive exploration of contemporary terrorism that helps readers develop the knowledge and skills they need to critically assess terrorism in general and terrorist incidents. The Sixth Edition has been comprehensively updated with new information on terrorist attacks and organizations, as well as key topics such as failed states, the lone-wolf model, state terrorism and human rights violations, cyberterrorism, counterterrorism intelligence, and target hardening.

Author Gus Martin provides a fresh analysis of violent extremism, with discussions of both international and domestic challenges and options. Focused discussion is provided on contemporary threats, new movements and tendencies, and the effectiveness of responses to these scenarios. Discussion of policies and responses to terrorist environments has been augmented to include new perspectives on counterterrorist options, comparisons of domestic and international scenarios, and the contexts of promoting regional and national security to help students understand the challenges, perspectives, and issues relevant to terrorism today.

Part I: Terrorism: A Conceptual Review
Chapter 1: Terrorism: First Impressions
Opening Viewpoint: The Ideology of Al-Qa'Ida
First Considerations
Conceptual Considerations: Understanding Political Violence
The Past as Prologue: Historical Perspectives on Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 1.1: The Gunpowder Plot of Guy Fawkes
Terrorism and Criminal Skill: Three Cases From the Modern Era
Chapter 2: The Nature of the Beast: Defining Terrorism
Opening Viewpoint: Are "Hate Crimes" Acts of Terrorism?
Understanding Extremism: The Foundation of Terrorism
Defining Terrorism: An Ongoing Debate
Chapter Perspective 2.1: The Problem of Labeling the Enemy in the New Era of Terrorism
A Definitional Problem: Perspectives on Terrorism
The Political Violence Matrix
Case in Point: The Orlando Mass Shooting-An Act of Terrorism and Hate Crime
Chapter 3: Beginnings: The Causes of Terrorism
Opening Viewpoint: The Case of Carlos
Political Violence as Strategic Choice
Political Violence as the Fruit of Injustice
Chapter Perspective 3.1: Women as Terrorists
Chapter Perspective 3.2: Profiles of Violent Extremists: Leila Khaled and Abu Nidal
Moral Justifications for Political Violence
Part II: The Terrorists
Chapter 4: Terror from Above: Terrorism by the State
Opening Viewpoint: State Terrorism as Domestic and Foreign Policy
The State as Terrorist: A State Terrorism Paradigm
Violence Abroad: Terrorism as Foreign Policy
Chapter Perspective 4.1: Calculation or Miscalculation? The Threat from Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Iraq Case
Violence at Home: Terrorism as Domestic Policy
Chapter Perspective 4.2: Cleansing Society
The Problem of Accountability: Monitoring State Terrorism
Chapter 5: Terror from Below: Terrorism by Dissidents
Opening Viewpoint: The Tupamaros
The Rebel as Terrorist: A Dissident Terrorism Paradigm
Chapter Perspective 5.1: Chechen Terrorism in Russia
Warring Against the State: Antistate Dissident Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 5.2: The Palestinian Movement
Warring Against a People: Communal Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 5.3: Child Soldiers
Operational Shifts: Dissidents and the New Terrorism
Chapter 6: Violence in the Name of the Faith: Religious Terrorism
Opening Viewpoint: The Journey of Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi
Primary and Secondary Motives: The Idiosyncratic Quality of Religious Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 6.1: Jihad: Struggling in the Way of God
Historical Cases in Point: Fighting, Dying, and Killing in the Name of the Faith
State-Sponsored Religious Terrorism in the Modern Era
Chapter Perspective 6.2: Assault on Mumbai
Dissident Religious Terrorism in the Modern Era
The Future of Religious Terrorism
Chapter 7: Violent Ideologies: Terrorism From the Left and Right
Opening Viewpoint: Racist Skinheads as a Supportive Environment
Reactionaries and Radicals: The Classical Ideological Continuum
Left-Wing Ideologies and Activism
Chapter Perspective 7.1: Required Reading on the "New Left"
Class Struggle and National Liberation: The Terrorist Left
Right-Wing Activism and Extremism
Race and Order: The Terrorist Right
Chapter Perspective 7.3: Violent Reactionaries: Characteristics of the Extreme Right
Violent Ideologies in the New Era of Terrorism
Chapter 8: Terrorist Spillovers: International Terrorism
Opening Viewpoint: Terrorism in the Age of Globalization
Chapter Perspective 8.1: The Changing Environment of International Terrorism
Defining International Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 8.2: The Benghazi Attack
Globalized Revolution: Reasons for International Terrorism
Globalized Solidarity: International Terrorist Networks
Chapter Perspective 8.3: A Remarkable Example of International Terrorism: The Japanese Red Army and the Lod (Lydda) Airport Massacre
The International Dimension of the New Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 8.3: Beyond Al-Qa'ida
Postscript: The "Stateless Revolutionaries"
Chapter 9: Emerging Terrorist Environments: Gender-Selective Political Violence and Criminal Dissident Terrorism
Opening Viewpoint: ISIS Gender-Selective Terrorism
Culture and Conflict: Gender Selected Victims of Terrorist Violence
Protecting the Enterprise: Criminal Dissident Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 9.1: Lebanon's Beka'a Valley
Chapter Perspective 9.2: The Tri-Border Area of South America
A Global Problem: Regional Cases of Criminal Dissident Terrorism
Part III: The Terrorist Trade and Counterterrorism
Chapter 10: Tools of the Trade: Tactics and Targets of Terrorists
Opening Viewpoint: Actionable Intelligence: Israel and the Hunt for the Engineer
The Purpose: Terrorist Objectives
The Means: Terrorist Methods
Chapter Perspective 10.1: The Al-Qa'ida "Terrorist Manual"
The Focus: Terrorist Targets
Chapter Perspective 10.2: The Symbolism of Targets: Terrorist Attacks Against the United States
The Outcome: Is Terrorism Effective?
Chapter Perspective 10.3: Tactical Horror: Digital, Video, and Audio Terrorism
Chapter 11: The Information Battleground: Terrorist Violence and the Role of the Media
Opening Viewpoint: Media-Oriented Terror and Lebanon's Hezbollah
Two Perspectives: The Media and Governments
Understanding the Role of the Media
Chapter Perspective 11.1: Delivering the Message
Chapter Perspective 11.2: Al Jazeera
A New Battleground: The War for the Information High Ground
The Public's Right to Know: Regulating the Media
Chapter Perspective 11.3: Self-Regulation and the American Media
Chapter 12: The American Case: Terrorism in the United States
Opening Viewpoint: Lynching-Vigilante Communal Terrorism in the United States
An Introduction to the American Case
Background to Terrorism: Left-Wing Activism and Ideological Extremism in America
Left-Wing Terrorism in the United States
Chapter Perspective 12.1: Seeds of Terrorism: Radicals on the American Left
Background to Terrorism: Right-Wing Activism and Ideological Extremism in America
Chapter Perspective 12.2: Conspiracy Theories on the American Right
Right Wing Terrorism in the United States
Chapter Perspective 12.3: Seeds of Terrorism: Reactionaries on the American Right
International Terrorism in the United States
Chapter Perspective 12.4: The Anthrax Crisis: A Post 9/11 Anomaly
Part IV: Securing the Homeland
Chapter 13: Counterterrorism: The Options
Opening Viewpoint: The Death of Osama Bin Laden
Responding to Terror: The Scope of Options
Warlike Operations: Counterterrorism and the Use of Force
Chapter Perspective 13.1: Operation El Dorado Canyon
Chapter Perspective 13.2: Hostage Rescues
Operations Other Than War: Repressive Options
Chapter 13.3: The Utility of Monitoring Social Networking Media
Operations Other Than War: Conciliatory Options
Applying the Rule of Law: Legalistic Options
Chapter Perspective 13.4: The Role of the "International Police"
Chapter 14: A New Era: Homeland Security
Opening Viewpoint: Data Mining by the U.S. National Security Agency
Homeland Security in Perspective
The American Case: Homeland Security in the United States
Chapter Perspective 14.1: Waging War in the Era of the New Terrorism
Civil Liberties and Securing the Homeland
Chapter 15: What's Next? The Future of Terrorism
Opening Viewpoint: Carnivore and the Dawn of Internet Surveillance
An Overview of Near-Term Projections
The Future of Terrorism: Terrorist Environments in the 21st Century
The Future of Terrorism: New Threats
Controlling Terrorism: Ending Terrorist Campaigns and New Challenges
Final Considerations: Terrorism in the United States

“This is a very interesting work and offers many useful material for the classroom. Students should be able to have a well-rounded educational experience and use, or in some cases develop, critical thinking skills. The text has may tools available to help the instructor in the classroom in presenting and testing the material the student is expected to learn.”

C. Augustus “Gus?? Martin is a Professor of Criminal Justice Administration at California State University, Dominguez Hills, where he regularly teaches a course on the subject of terrorism and extremism. He has also served as Associate Vice President for Human Resources Management, acting Associate Dean of the College of Business Administration and Public Policy, Associate Vice President for Faculty Affairs, and Chair of the Department of Public Administration and Public Policy. He began his academic career as a member of the faculty of the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, where he was an Administration of Justice professor. His current research and professional interests are terrorism and extremism, homeland security, administration of justice, and juvenile justice.

Dr. Martin is author of several books on the subjects of terrorism and homeland security, including Understanding Homeland Security (SAGE Publications, 2017); Essentials of Terrorism: Concepts and Controversies (SAGE Publications, 2017);The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Second Edition (SAGE Publications, 2011); Terrorism and Homeland Security (SAGE Publications, 2011); and The New Era of Terrorism: Selected Readings (SAGE Publications, 2004). He is also author of Juvenile Justice: Process and Systems (SAGE Publications, 2005).

Prior to joining academia, Dr. Martin served as Managing Attorney for the Fair Housing Partnership of Greater Pittsburgh, where he was also director of a program created under a federal court-mandated consent decree to desegregate public and assisted housing. He was also Special Counsel to the Attorney General of the U.S. Virgin Islands on the island of St. Thomas. As Special Counsel he occupied a personal and confidential position in the central office of the Department of Justice; sat as hearing officer for disciplinary hearings and departmental grievances; served as chair of the drug policy committee; served as liaison to the intergovernmental Law Enforcement Coordinating Committee as well as to the Narcotics Strike Force; and provided daily legal and policy advice to the Attorney General. Prior to serving as Special Counsel, he was a “floor?? Legislative Assistant to Congressman Charles B. Rangel of New York. As Legislative Assistant, he researched, evaluated, and drafted legislation in areas of foreign policy, foreign aid, human rights, housing, education, social services, and poverty. He also drafted House floor statements, Congressional Record inserts, press releases, and news articles, and composed speeches, briefing materials, and legislative correspondence.