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Pediatric Arrhythmias and EKGs for the Health Care Provider

by Kathleen Prater Springer Publishing Company
Pub Date:
06/2017
ISBN:
9780826194466
Format:
Pbk 296 pages
Price:
AU$67.00 NZ$71.30
Product Status: In Stock Now
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Instructors
& Academics:

A step-by-step guide to mastering recognition and interpretation of pediatric EKGs for pediatric nurses at all levels, physician assistants, residents, paramedics, medical students, and technicians.

This time-tested publication has successfully trained numerous pediatric nurses from a leading children’s hospital. Pediatric advanced practice registered nurses and clinical nurse specialists working in acute or critical care settings, as well as physician assistants and medical residents, need to understand the principles of accurate pediatric EKG interpretation and the appropriate follow-up steps necessary for the best patient care. With a total of 100 EKGs, rhythm strips, and interpretations, this comprehensive but concise text analyzes all levels of arrhythmias to allow pediatric health care providers to interpret normal and abnormal pediatric EKGs and rhythm strips with confidence.

This user-friendly, quick reference outlines the basic rules for pediatric arrhythmias and EKG interpretations using a multitude of different EKGs and rhythm strips and basic but critical figures and tables. With the use of a systematic checklist for standard evaluation, the text walks the reader through the essential signs that a health care provider must learn to recognize when examining the EKGs and rhythm strips of their pediatric patients. This book culminates in a robust selection of 50 EKGs and additional rhythm strips for practice and a self-test on the material presented in the preceding chapters. The answers can be compared with the cardiologist’s interpretations for reinforcement of understanding and application.

Pediatric Arrhythmias and EKGss for the Health Care Provider teaches readers in a quick, at-a-glance approach:

  • To obtain an interpretable pediatric tracing
  • To implement a proper measurement method
  • To understand both normal and abnormal EKGs
  • To learn the quickest and most accurate QTc method
  • To systematically use tables, diagrams, figures, and graphs for interpretation
  • To interpret with confidence even very complicated tracings
  • To know which tracings need a pediatric cardiologist’s attention

Contents


In Memory of Joyce Ellis Hubbard, MD


Foreword Margaret C. Slota, DNP, RN, FAAN


Preface


Acknowledgments


Important Aspects of EKG Interpretation


Section I. Mechanics


1. The EKG Machine


Computerized Digital EKG Machine


Key Points When Operating an EKG Machine


EKG Settings


Some Reasons for Ordering an EKG


2. How to Produce Quality Tracings


Distractions


Limitations


Artifacts


Artifact Example


Residue


EKG Machine Representative


Section II. Criteria for Pediatric Rhythms and EKGs


3. Technique


Pediatric EKG Hookup Diagram


Pediatric EKG Hookup Instructions


Standardizations


Correct Labeling of Pediatric EKGs


Systematic Checklist


Rhythm Strip Use and Lengths


Dextrocardia


Dextrocardia Hookup and Explanation


4. Fundamentals


Electrical Pathways


Heartbeat Components and Explanations


Normal Pediatric Heart Rates


Determining Heart Rate


Electrocardiographic Paper Grid Dimensions


Tools for Heartbeat Measurement


Determining the Axis of the Heart


Axis Quadrants


Heart Rates of Some Dysrhythmias


Premature Ventricular Complex/Contraction (PVC) Frequency Events Chart


Section III. Pediatric Rhythm Strips and Interpretations


5. Arrhythmias Associated With Specific Medical Conditions or Drugs


Sinus Bradycardia (SB)


Sinus Tachycardia (ST)


Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)


Atrial Flutter (AFL)


Atrial Fibrillation (AF)


Junctional Rhythms (JR)


Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)


Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)


Ventricular Fibrillation (VF)


First-Degree Atrioventricular (AV) Block


Second-Degree AV Block Mobitz I


Second-Degree AV Block Mobitz II


Third-Degree AV Block


Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)


Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH)


Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) Syndrome


6. Normal to Advanced Rhythms


Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)


Sinus Arrhythmia (SA)


Sinus Bradycardia (SB)


Sinus Tachycardia (ST)


Wandering Atrial Pacemaker (WAP)


Supraventricular Ectopic (SVE) Beat


Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)


SVT Pre-Adenosine


SVT Post-Adenosine


Atrial Flutter (AFL)


Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) Syndrome


Junctional Rhythm (JR) Morphologies


Premature Junctional Complexes/Contraction (PJC)


Junctional Rhythm (JR)


Junctional Escape Rhythm (JER)


Accelerated Junctional Rhythm (AJR)


Junctional Tachycardia (JT)


Premature Ventricular Complexes/Contractions (PVC)


Multiform Ventricular Couplet


Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)


Torsades de Pointes (TdP)


Ventricular Flutter and Fibrillation (VFL and VF)


Ventricular Fusion Beat (VFB)


First-Degree Atrioventricular (AVB) Block


Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block (AVB) Wenckebach Mobitz I


Second-Degree Atrioventricular (AVB) Block Mobitz II


Third-Degree Atrioventricular (AV) Heart Block (Complete Heart Block)


Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)


Three Interesting Rhythm Strips


Answers to the Three Interesting Rhythm Strips


Section IV. EKGs and Interpretations


7. Pediatric Standards


Tables of Normal Values


Measurement of QT and Calculation for QTc


Sudden Death From Inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)


8. Normal to Advanced EKGs and Interpretations


Normal Sinus Rhythm


Normal Sinus Rhythm Interpretation


Sinus Arrhythmia (SA)


SA Interpretation


Sinus Bradycardia (SB)


SB Interpretation


Sinus Tachycardia (ST)


ST Interpretation


Wandering Atrial Pacemaker (WAP)


WAP Interpretation


Premature Atrial Complexes (PACs)


PACs Interpretation


Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)


SVT Interpretation


SVT Pre-Adenosine


SVT Pre-Adenosine Interpretation


Post-Adenosine


Post-Adenosine Interpretation


Junctional Escape Rhythm (JER)


JER Interpretation


Accelerated Junctional Rhythm (AJR) Preceding SB


AJR Preceding SB Interpretation


Junctional Tachycardia (JT)


JT Interpretation


Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia (JET)


JET Interpretation


Permanent Form of Junctional Reciprocating Tachycardia (PJRT)


PJRT Interpretation


Atrial Flutter (AFL) With 2:1 Atrioventricular (AV) Conduction


AFL With 2:1 AV Conduction Interpretation


AFL With 4:1 and 6:1 AV Conduction


AFL With 4:1 and 6:1 AV Conduction Interpretation


Atrial Flutter/Fibrillation (AFL/AF)


AFL/AF Interpretation


Atrial Tachycardia With 2:1 AV Conduction


Atrial Tachycardia With 2:1 AV Conduction Interpretation


First-Degree AV Block


First-Degree AV Block Interpretation


Second-Degree AV Block Mobitz I


Second-Degree AV Block Mobitz I Interpretation


Second-Degree AV Block Mobitz II


Second-Degree AV Block Mobitz II Interpretation


Third-Degree AV Block


Third-Degree AV Block Interpretation


Premature Ventricular Complexes/Contractions (PVCs)


PVCs Interpretation


PVCs as Ventricular Couplets


PVCs as Ventricular Couplets Interpretation


Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)


VT Interpretation


Wide QRS Tachycardia


Wide QRS Tachycardia Interpretation


Possible Ventricular Fibrillation (VF)


Possible VF Interpretation


Ventricular Fusion Beat (VFB)


VFB Interpretation


Hyperkalemia


Hyperkalemia Interpretation


Hypokalemia


Hypokalemia Interpretation


Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)


LQTS Interpretation


T Wave Inversion


T Wave Inversion Interpretation


Left Axis Deviation (LAD)


LAD Interpretation


Right Axis Deviation (RAD)


RAD Interpretation


Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)


LVH Interpretation


Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH)


RVH Interpretation


RVH and Intraventricular Conduction Delay (IVCD)


RVH and IVCD Interpretation


Biventricular Hypertrophy (BVH)


BVH Interpretation


Left Atrial Enlargement (LAE)


LAE Interpretation


Right Atrial Enlargement (RAE)


RAE Interpretation


Biatrial Enlargement (BAE)


BAE Interpretation


Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) Syndrome


WPW Syndrome Interpretation


Lown–Ganong–Levine (LGL) Syndrome


LGL Syndrome Interpretation


Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB)


LBBB Interpretation


Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB)


RBBB Interpretation


Dextrocardia


Dextrocardia Interpretation


Deep Q Waves


Deep Q Waves Interpretation


Heart Transplant


Heart Transplant Interpretation


Junctional Rhythm (JR), LAD, and RBBB


JR, LAD, and RBBB Interpretation


Sinus Tachycardia (ST), LAD, and Possible RBBB


ST, LAD, and Possible RBBB Interpretation


Section V. Self-Assessment Workbook


9. Review Worksheets and Questions


10. Answers


Acronyms


Index