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Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement 3ed

by Bruce Abernethy, Vaughan Kippers, Stephanie Hanrahan, Marcus Pandy, Ali McManus and Laurel Mackinnon Human Kinetics
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Hbk 408 pages
AU$206.00 NZ$213.04
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Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement, Third Edition, introduces readers to key concepts concerning the anatomical, mechanical, physiological, neural, and psychological bases of human movement. The text provides undergraduate students with a broad foundation for more detailed study of the subdisciplines of human movement and for cross-disciplinary studies. Readers will learn the multi-dimensional changes in movement and movement potential that occur throughout the life span as well as those changes that occur as adaptations to training, practice, and other lifestyle factors.


This third edition includes the latest research and improved presentation to address areas of growth and change in the fields of human movement. The following are important updates to this edition:


• A new chapter on historical origins of human movement science provides students with an appreciation of the development of the field as well as its future directions.


• Content regarding exercise physiology has been reorganized to provide more discrete coverage of key concepts in nutrition.


• A new concluding section focuses on applications in the areas of prevention and management of chronic disease, prevention and management of injury, and performance enhancement in sport and the workplace, as well as the benefits of sport and exercise science to work, sport, and everyday living.


• Ancillary materials support instructors in teaching across disciplines as they assist students in understanding the breadth of content in this comprehensive text.


Using a modular approach to teaching sport and exercise science, Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement, Third Edition, offers students a structured understanding of how the subdisciplines work independently and in tandem. Following a general introduction to the field of human movement studies, readers are introduced to basic concepts, life-span changes, and adaptations arising in response to training in each of the five major biophysical subdisciplines of human movement. Each subdiscipline is given a brief introduction, including the definition and historical development of the subdiscipline, the typical issues and problems it addresses, the levels of analysis it uses, and relevant professional training and organizations. Multi-disciplinary and cross-disciplinary approaches to human movement are also discussed along with contemporary applications. By studying the integration of knowledge from a number of the biophysical subdisciplines, students will be better prepared for advanced study and careers reliant on the integration of knowledge from various disciplines and perspectives.


The third edition offers tools for retaining the material, including learning objectives and summaries in each chapter, a glossary, and lists of web-based resources. Throughout the text, special “In Focus” features highlight key organizations, individuals, and studies from around the world that have contributed to the current understanding of human movement. These features help readers appreciate the evolution of the field so that they may better understand its direction. Students interested in further study will find specialized texts for each of the subdisciplines listed in the Further Reading and References section of each chapter along with updated lists of websites.


The third edition of Biophysical FFoundations of Human Movement offers a comprehensive introduction for students, scientists, and practitioners involved in the many professions grounded in or related to human movement, kinesiology, and sport and exercise science. By considering the effect of adaptations in each of the biophysical subdisciplines of human movement, Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement also illustrates the important role physical activity plays in the maintenance of health throughout the life span.

Part I: Introduction to Human Movement Studies

Chapter 1. Human Movement Studies as a Discipline and a Profession

What is Human Movement Studies and Why is it Important?

Disciplines and Professions

Is Human Movement Studies a Discipline?

Structure of a Discipline of Human Movement Studies

What Should the Discipline of Human Movement Studies Be Called?

Professions Based on Human Movement Studies

Professional Organisations

Relationships Between the Discipline and the Professions


Further Reading and References

Chapter 2. Historical Origins of the Academic Study of Human Movement

Scholarly Writings on Human Movement From Ancient Civilisations (ca. 1000 BC-350 AD)

The Middle Ages as a Period of Suppression of the Study of Human Movement (ca. 350-1350 AD)

Scholarly Works on Human Movement From the Renaissance and Reformation Periods (ca. 1350-1650 AD)

Scholarly Works on Human Movement During the Period 1650-1885

Professionalization of Physical Education During the Period 1885-1929

Organisation of Research Efforts in Physical Education During the Period 1930-1959

Beginnings of a Discipline of Human Movement Studies During the Period 1960-1970

Emergence of Subdisciplines and Specialisations, 1970-Present

Future Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities


Further Reading

Part II: Anatomical Bases of Human Movement: Functional Anatomy

Chapter 3. Basic Concepts of the Musculoskeletal System

Tools for Measurement

Skeletal System

Articular System

Muscular System


Further Reading

Chapter 4. Basic Concepts of Anthropometry

Definition of Anthropometry

Tools for Measurement

Body Size

Determination of Body Shape

Tissues Composing the Body

Somatotyping as a Description of Body Build

Human Variation


Further Reading and References

Chapter 5. Musculoskeletal Changes Across the Life Span

Definitions of Auxology and Gerontology

Tools for Measurement

Physical Growth, Maturation, and Ageing

Age-Related Changes in the Skeletal and Articular Systems

Age-Related Changes in the Muscular System

Changes in Body Dimensions Across the Life Span

Methods of Determining Age


Further Reading

Chapter 6. Musculoskeletal Adaptations to Training

Effects of Physical Activity on Bone

Effects of Physical Activity on Joint Structure and Ranges of Motion

Effects of Physical Activity on Muscle–Tendon Units

Effects of Physical Activity on Body Size, Shape, and Composition


Further Reading and References

Part III: Mechanical Bases of Human Movement: Biomechanics

Chapter 7. Basic Concepts of Kinematics and Kinetics



Generalized Coordinates and Degrees of Freedom


Moment of Force

Force Analyses

Equations of Motion

Computer Modeling of Movement


Further Reading

Chapter 8. Basic Concepts of Energetics

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

Total Mechanical Energy


Elastic Strain Energy

Metabolic Energy Consumption

Efficiency of Movement


Further Reading

Chapter 9. Biomechanics Across the Life Span

Biomechanics of Normal Gait

Changes in Muscle Strength with Age

Gait Development in Children

Gait Changes in Older Adults


Further Reading

Chapter 10. Biomechanical Adaptations to Training

Muscular Adaptations to Training

Neuromuscular Adaptations to Training

Training to Prevent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Biomechanical Adaptations to Injury

Dependence of Motor Performance on Changes in Muscle Properties

Using Computer Modelling to Study Vertical Jumping Performance

Insights Into the Effects of Training Provided by Computer Models


Further Reading

Part IV: Physiological Bases of Human Movement: Exercise Physiology

Chapter 11. Basic Concepts of Exercise Metabolism

Production of Energy for Exercise

Oxygen Supply During Sustained Exercise

V\od\O2max as an Indicator of Endurance-Exercise Capacity

Measurement of Exercise Capacity

Human Skeletal Muscle Cells


Further Reading

Chapter 12. Basic Concepts of Nutrition and Exercise

Energy Requirements of Exercise

Nutrients for Exercise

Fluid Requirements During Exercise


Further Reading

Chapter 13. Physiological Capacity Across the Life Span

Responses to Exercise in Children

Exercise in Older Adult Life


Further Reading and References

Chapter 14. Physiological Adaptations to Training

Training-Induced Metabolic Adaptations

Immediate and Anaerobic-System Changes After High-Intensity Sprint and Strength Training

Changes in Aerobic Metabolism After Endurance Training

Endurance Training-Induced Changes in the Cardiorespiratory System

Endurance Training-Induced Respiratory Changes

Endurance Training-Induced Changes in Lactate Threshold

Changes in the Muscular System After Strength Training

Basic Principles of Training

Continuous and Interval Training

Training for Cardiovascular Endurance

Methods of Strength Training

Causes of Muscle Soreness


Further Reading

Part V: Neural Bases of Human Movement: Motor Control

Chapter 15. Basic Concepts of Motor Control: Neuroscience Perspectives

Nervous System as an Elaborate Communications Network

Components of the Nervous System

Neurons and Synapses as the Building Blocks of the Nervous System

Sensory Receptor Systems for Movement

Effector Systems for Movement

Motor Control Functions of the Spinal Cord

Motor Control Functions of the Brain

Integrative Brain Mechanisms for Movement


Further Reading

Chapter 16. Basic Concepts of Motor Control: Cognitive Science Perspectives

Using Models to Study Motor Control

Key Properties to be Explained by Models of Motor Control

Information-Processing Models of Motor Control

Some Alternative Models of Motor Control


Further Reading

Chapter 17. Motor Control Changes Throughout the Life Span

Changes in Observable Motor Performance

Changes at the Neurophysiological Level

Changes in Information-Processing Capabilities


Further Reading

Chapter 18. Motor Control Adaptations to Training

Changes in Observable Motor Performance

Changes at the Neurophysiological Level

Changes in Information-Processing Capabilities

Factors Affecting the Learning of Motor Skills


Further Reading

Part VI: Psychological Bases of Human Movement: Sport and Exercise Psychology

Chapter 19. Basic Concepts in Sport Psychology


Motivation in Sport

Self-Determination Theory

Arousal, Anxiety, and Sport Performance

The Practice of Applied Sport Psychology

Imagery: An Example of Psychological Skill


Further Reading

Chapter 20. Basic Concepts in Exercise Psychology

Effects of Psychological Factors on Exercise

Effects of Exercise on Psychological Factors


Further Reading

Chapter 21. Physical Activity and Psychological Factors Across the Life Span

Changes in Personality

Psychosocial Development Through Sport Participation

Exercise in the Aged

Termination of Athletic Careers


Further Reading

Chapter 22. Psychological Adaptations to Training

Aerobic Fitness and the Response to Psychological Stress

Changes in Personality

Changes in Motivation: Staleness, Overtraining, and Burnout

Changes in Mental Skills


Further Reading

Part VII: Multi- and Cross-Disciplinary Applications to Human Movement Science

Chapter 23. Applications to Health in Chronic-Disease Prevention and Management

Major Causes of Disease and Death Globally

Cost of Physical Inactivity

Measuring Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

Levels of Physical Activity in Adults and Children

Recommendations for Physical Activity


Further Reading

Chapter 24. Applications to Health in Injury Prevention and Management

Preventing Manual-Lifting Injuries in the Workplace

Preventing and Managing Overuse Injuries in Sport

Preventing Injuries Related to Osteoporosis


Further Reading

Chapter 25. Applications to Performance Enhancement in Sport and the Workplace

Talent Identification

Performance Optimization


Further Reading and References

"The book is made up of standalone sections that make reading easy and understandable. The authors are well-respected scientists in the field, and the information they provide throughout originates from evidence-based research."

--Doody's Book Review (5 Star Review)

Bruce Abernethy, PhD, is professor of human movement science in the School of Human Movement Studies and deputy executive dean and associate dean (research) in the faculty of health sciences at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. He also holds a visiting professor appointment at the University of Hong Kong, where he was previously the inaugural chair professor and director of the Institute of Human Performance. He is also coeditor of Creative Side of Experimentation.

Abernethy earned his PhD from the University of Otago. He is an international fellow of the National Academy of Kinesiology (USA), a fellow of Sports Medicine Australia, and a fellow of Exercise and Sports Science Australia.

Stephanie J. Hanrahan, PhD, is a registered sport psychologist and an associate professor in the Schools of Human Movement Studies and Psychology at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Hanrahan has over 20 years of experience in teaching human movement studies at the undergraduate level. She is a recipient of the University of Queensland's Excellence in Teaching Award. In addition to being part of the author team for the first two editions of Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement, Hanrahan has authored or edited nine other books.

Hanrahan is a fellow of the Australian Sports Medicine Federation and a fellow of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology, for which she is chair of the organization’s International Relations Division. Hanrahan serves on the national executive committee of the College of Sport and Exercise Psychologists in the Australian Psychological Society.

Hanrahan earned her doctorate in sport psychology in 1990 from the University of Western Australia. She resides in Moorooka, Queensland, and enjoys traveling, Latin dancing, and kayaking.

Vaughan Kippers, PhD, is a senior lecturer in the School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Queensland. He coordinates anatomy courses for students enrolled in medicine, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy programs. His major research involves the use of electromyography, in which the electrical signals produced by muscles as they contract are analyzed to determine muscular control of human movement.

Kippers is a fellow of the International Association of Medical Science Educators and is on the board of directors of that association. He is also secretary of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Clinical Anatomists.

Cycling and photography are Kippers’ main interests. He commutes on a bicycle daily and regularly participates in long rides on weekend. He is a former president of Audax Queensland, an international long-distance cycling association.

Marcus G. Pandy, PhD, is a professor of mechanical and biomedical engineering in the department of mechanical engineering at the University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Pandy earned his PhD in mechanical engineering at Ohio State University in Columbus and then completed a postdoctoral fellowship in mechanical engineering at Stanford University. Before joining the University of Melbourne, he held the Joe J. King professorship in engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.

Pandy is an associate editor for the Journal of Biomechanics and a fellow of the Institute of Engineers Australia, the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Ali McManus, PhD, is an associate professor and assistant director of the Institute of Human Performance at the University of Hong Kong. Her research focuses on the role exercise and free-living physical activity play in the health and well-being of children, the development of population measures of obesity and its associated health risks, and the provision of a more comprehensive understanding of the complex metabolic bases of exercise and physical activity in obese children.

McManus earned her PhD from the University of Exeter, UK. She lives in Clearwater Bay, Hong Kong, and enjoys going to the gym, horse riding, playing tennis, and spending time with her children, Tash and Bella, and husband, John.

Laurel T. Mackinnon, PhD, is a science writer and editor based in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. She is also a former associate professor and now adjunct associate professor in the School of Human Movement Studies at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Mackinnon conducted research on the immune response to exercise in the 1980s and 1990s and is internationally recognized for her work on overtraining and immune function in athletes. She is the author of 6 books and 12 book chapters, including Exercise and Immunology (Human Kinetics, 1992), the first book to explore the intriguing relationship between exercise and immune response. She has published over 65 peer-reviewed articles in international journals.

Mackinnon has worked since 2000 as a science writer and editor. She is editing team manager for OnLine English, an Internet-based service that specializes in editing academic, research, and industry communications written by non-native speakers of English wishing to publish in English-language scientific journals.

Mackinnon is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the Australasian Medical Writers Association. She is a former board member of the International Society of Exercise and Immunology (ISEI) and the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science. Mackinnon earned her PhD in exercise science from the University of Michigan.

She enjoys exercising, reading, and listening to classical and jazz music. Mackinnon resides in Brisbane, Queensland.