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Theory of Stellar Atmospheres: An Introduction to Astrophysical Non-equilibrium Quantitative Spectroscopic Analysis

by Ivan Hubeny and Dimitri Mihalas Princeton University Press
Pub Date:
10/2014
ISBN:
9780691163291
Format:
Pbk 944 pages
Price:
AU$213.00 NZ$220.87
Product Status: Not Our Publication - we no longer distribute
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Instructors
& Academics:
This book provides an in-depth and self-contained treatment of the latest advances achieved in quantitative spectroscopic analyses of the observable outer layers of stars and similar objects. Written by two leading researchers in the field, it presents a comprehensive account of both the physical foundations and numerical methods of such analyses. The book is ideal for astronomers who want to acquire deeper insight into the physical foundations of the theory of stellar atmospheres, or who want to learn about modern computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in non-equilibrium situations. It can also serve as a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the discipline for graduate students. Provides a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the fieldCovers computational methods as well as the underlying physicsServes as an ideal reference book for researchers and a rigorous yet accessible textbook for graduate studentsAn online illustration package is available to professors


Preface xi

Chapter 1. Why Study Stellar Atmospheres? 1

1.1 A Historical Précis 1

1.2 The Bottom Line 15

Chapter 2. Observational Foundations 20

2.1 What Is a Stellar Atmosphere? 20

2.2 Spectroscopy 23

2.3 Spectrophotometry 29

2.4 Photometry 32

2.5 Mass, Luminosity, and Radius 46

2.6 Interpretation of Color-Magnitude Diagrams 53

Chapter 3. Radiation 61

3.1 Specific Intensity 61

3.2 Mean Intensity and Energy Density 65

3.3 Radiation Flux 72

3.4 Radiation Pressure Tensor 75

3.5 * Transformation Properties of I, E, F, P 78

3.6 Quantum Theory of Radiation in Vacuum 80

Chapter 4. Statistical Mechanics of Matter and Radiation 86

4.1 Thermodynamic Equilibrium 86

4.2 Boltzmann Statistics 88

4.3 Thermal Radiation 98

4.4 Quantum Statistics 103

4.5 Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium 111

Chapter 5. Absorption and Emission of Radiation 113

5.1 Absorption and Thermal Emission 114

5.2 Detailed Balance 116

5.3 Bound-Bound Absorption Probability 121

5.4 Bound-Bound Emission Probability 130

5.5 Photoionization 136

5.6 Free-Free Transitions 137

Chapter 6. Continuum Scattering 144

6.1 Thomson Scattering: Classical Analysis 145

6.2 Thomson Scattering: Quantum Mechanical Analysis 150

6.3 * Rayleigh and Raman Scattering 153

6.4 Compton Scattering 159

6.5 Compton Scattering in the Early Universe 165

Chapter 7. Atomic and Molecular Absorption Cross Sections 170

7.1 Hydrogen and Hydrogenic Ions 171

7.2 Multi-Electron Atoms 192

7.3 Molecules 208

Chapter 8. Spectral Line Broadening 228

8.1 Natural Damping Profile 228

8.2 Doppler Broadening: Voigt Function 231

8.3 Semiclassical Impact Theory 233

8.4 Statistical Theory: Quasi-Static Approximation 241

8.5 * Quantum Theory of Line Broadening 248

8.6 Applications 258

Chapter 9. Kinetic Equilibrium Equations 262

9.1 LTE versus Non-LTE 262

9.2 General Formulation 264

9.3 Transition Rates 267

9.4 Level Dissolution and Occupation Probabilities 278

9.5 Complete Rate Equations 282

Chapter 10. Scattering of Radiation in Spectral Lines 290

10.1 Semiclassical (Weisskopf-Woolley) Picture 291

10.2 * Quantum Mechanical Derivation of Redistribution Functions 301

10.3 Basic Redistribution Functions 308

10.4 More Complex Redistribution Functions 321

10.5 Emission Coefficient 327

Chapter 11. Radiative Transfer Equation 334

11.1 Absorption, Emission, and Scattering Coefficients 334

11.2 Formulation 339

11.3 Moments of the Transfer Equation 347

11.4 Time-Independent, Static, Planar Atmospheres 352

11.5 Schwarzschild-Milne Equations 361

11.6 Second-Order Form of the Transfer Equation 367

11.7 Discretization 370

11.8 Probabilistic Interpretation 373

11.9 Diffusion Limit 374

Chapter 12. Direct Solution of the Transfer Equation 378

12.1 The Problem of Scattering 379

12.2 Feautrier's Method 387

12.3 Rybicki's Method 397

12.4 Formal Solution 400

12.5 Variable Eddington Factors 418

Chapter 13. Iterative Solution of the Transfer Equation 421

13.1 Accelerated Lambda Iteration: A Heuristic View 421

13.2 Iteration Methods and Convergence Properties 425

13.3 Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) 434

13.4 Acceleration of Convergence 440

13.5 Astrophysical Implementation 443

Chapter 14. NLTE Two-Level and Multi-Level Atoms 448

14.1 Formulation 448

14.2 Two-Level Atom 457

14.3 Approximate Solutions 471

14.4 Equivalent-Two-Level-Atom Approach 482

14.5 Numerical Solution of the Multi-level Atom Problem 488

14.6 Physical Interpretation 505

Chapter 15. Radiative Transfer with Partial Redistribution 511

15.1 Formulation 511

15.2 Simple Heuristic Model 515

15.3 Approximate Solutions 519

15.4 Exact Solutions 524

15.5 Multi-level Atoms 533

15.6 Applications 539

Chapter 16. Structural Equations 546

16.1 Equations of Hydrodynamics 546

16.2 1D Flow 554

16.3 1D Steady Flow 555

16.4 StaticAtmospheres 557

16.5 Convection 558

16.6 Stellar Interiors 565

Chapter 17. LTE Model Atmospheres 569

17.1 Gray Atmosphere 569

17.2 Equation of State 588

17.3 Non-Gray LTE Radiative-Equilibrium Models 593

17.4 Models with Convection 604

17.5 LTE Spectral Line Formation 606

17.6 Line Blanketing 620

17.7 Models with External Irradiation 627

17.8 Available Modeling Codes and Grids 631

Chapter 18. Non-LTE Model Atmospheres 633

18.1 Overview of Basic Equations 633

18.2 Complete Linearization 645

18.3 Overview of Possible Iterative Methods 660

18.4 Application of ALI and Related Methods 667

18.5 NLTE Metal Line Blanketing 676

18.6 Applications: Modeling Codes and Grids 684

Chapter 19. Extended and Expanding Atmospheres 691

19.1 Extended Atmospheres 691

19.2 Moving Atmospheres: Observer's-Frame Formulation 705

19.3 Moving Atmospheres: Comoving-Frame Formulation 713

19.4 Moving Atmospheres: Mixed-Frame Formulation 736

19.5 Sobolev Approximation 743

19.6 NLTE Line Formation 754

Chapter 20. Stellar Winds 764

20.1 Qualitative Picture 765

20.2 Thermally DrivenWinds 766

20.3 Radiation-Driven Winds 772

20.4 Global Model Atmospheres 800

Appendix A. Relativistic Particles 815

A.1 Kinematics and Dynamics of Point Particles 815

A.2 Relativistic Kinetic Theory 822

Appendix B. Photons 829

B.1 Lorentz Transformation of the Photon Four-Momentum 829

B.2 Photon Distribution Function 830

B.3 Thomas Transformations 831

Glossary of Symbols 833

Bibliography 849

Index 915



"This is an impressive book. Hubeny and Mihalas review the statistical mechanics of matter and radiation; the absorption, emission, and scattering of radiation; and line broadening in the context of the non-equilibrium structure of a stellar atmosphere. They summarize the early fundamental work in the field, and give a detailed account of the methods needed to calculate and study stellar spectra."'Eugene H. Avrett, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Ivan Hubeny is a senior research scientist at the Steward Observatory and adjunct professor in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona. Dimitri Mihalas (1939-2013) was an astrophysicist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. His many books include ''Stellar Atmospheres'' and ''Foundations of Radiation Hydrodynamics''.