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Stellar Spectral Classification

by Richard O Gray and ChristopherJ Corbally Princeton University Press
Pub Date:
03/2009
ISBN:
9780691125114
Format:
Pbk 592 pages
Price:
AU$173.00 NZ$179.13
Product Status: Not Our Publication - we no longer distribute
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Instructors
& Academics:
Written by premier experts in the field, Stellar Spectral Classification is the only book to comprehensively discuss both the foundations and most up-to-date techniques of MK and other spectral classification systems. Definitive and encyclopedic, the book introduces the astrophysics of spectroscopy, reviews the entire field of stellar astronomy, and shows how the well-tested methods of spectral classification are a powerful discovery tool for graduate students and researchers working in astronomy and astrophysics.

The book begins with a historical survey, followed by chapters discussing the entire range of stellar phenomena, from brown dwarfs to supernovae. The authors account for advances in the field, including the addition of the L and T dwarf classes; the revision of the carbon star, Wolf-Rayet, and white dwarf classification schemes; and the application of neural nets to spectral classification. Copious figures illustrate the morphology of stellar spectra, and the book incorporates recent discoveries from earth-based and satellite data. Many examples of spectra are given in the red, ultraviolet, and infrared regions, as well as in the traditional blue-violet optical region, all useful for researchers identifying stellar and galactic spectra.

This essential reference includes a glossary, handy appendices and tables, an index, and a web-based resource of spectra.
In addition to the authors, the contributors are Adam Burgasser, Margaret Hanson, J. Davy Kirkpatrick, and Nolan Walborn.
280 line illustrations Ancillaries: a web-based resource of spectra.



Preface xi

Important Note on Terminology and Units xv



Chapter 1. The History and Philosophy of Stellar Spectral Classification 1

1.1 Early History 1

1.2 Later Developments 10

1.3 The MK Process 17



Chapter 2. An Overview of the Normal Stars 32

2.1 Introduction 32

2.2 The Spectral Sequence 32

2.3 Multicolor Photometry and Stellar Classification 44

2.4 Physical Principles Underlying the MK Sequence 50



Chapter 3. The OB Stars--Nolan R. Walborn 66

3.1 Introduction 66

3.2 The Optical 66

3.3 The Ultraviolet 75

3.4 The Infrared--Margaret M. Hanson 81

3.5 Peculiar Categories 89

3.6 X-Ray Line Spectra 102

3.7 Calibration and Astrophysical Modeling 105



Chapter 4. The B-type Stars 115

4.1 Introduction 115

4.2 Optical Classification 115

4.3 The Ultraviolet 120

4.4 Chemically Peculiar B-type Stars 123

4.5 Be Stars and B Shell Stars 135

4.6 Other B-type Emission-line Stars 143

4.7 B-type Stars in Advanced Evolutionary States 147



Chapter 5. The A-type Stars 160

5.1 Introduction 160

5.2 Optical Spectral-type Criteria 160

5.3 Ultraviolet and Infrared Classification Schemes 169

5.4 Chemically Peculiar Stars 176

5.5 Herbig Ae/Be Stars 200

5.6 A-type Stars in Advanced Evolutionary Stages 207

5.7 A-type Shell Stars 213



Chapter 6. The F-type Stars 221

6.1 Introduction 221

6.2 Optical Classification 221

6.3 Classification in the Ultraviolet and Infrared 227

6.4 Population II F-type Stars 236

6.5 Chemically Peculiar F-type Stars 244

6.6 F-type Stars in Advanced Evolutionary Stages 249



Chapter 7. The G- and K-type Stars 259

7.1 Introduction 259

7.2 Optical Classification 259

7.3 The Infrared 265

7.4 The Search for a Solar Twin; Chromospheric Activity 270

7.5 T Tauri Stars 275

7.6 Chemically Peculiar G- and K-giants 278

7.7 Population II and III Stars 281

7.8 The High Luminosity, Yellow Variables 283



Chapter 8. The M-type, S-type, and Carbon Stars 293

8.1 Introduction 293

8.2 The M-type Stars 293

8.3 The Carbon Stars 306

8.4 The S-type Stars 321

8.5 Symbiotic and Algol Stars 331



Chapter 9. M Dwarfs and L Dwarfs--J. Davy Kirkpatrick 339

9.1 Introduction 339

9.2 The Discovery of M Dwarfs and L Dwarfs 339

9.3 Spectroscopic Classification 341

9.4 Physical Interpretation of Types 362

9.4 Peculiar Objects 372



Chapter 10. The T-type Dwarfs--Adam J. Burgasser 388

10.1 Introduction 388

10.2 Recognition of the T Dwarf Class and Early Discoveries 389

10.3 T Dwarf Spectral Characteristics 391

10.4 Near-Infrared Classification 396

10.5 Optical Classification 417

10.6 Mid-Infrared Classification 425

10.7 Additional Considerations for T-Dwarf Classification 428

10.8 Beyond the T Dwarfs 434



Chapter 11. Wolf-Rayet Stars and the Luminous Blue Variables 441

11.1 The Wolf-Rayet Stars 441

11.2 Luminous Blue Variables 465

11.3 Evolutionary Connections 468



Chapter 12. Endpoints of Stellar Evolution 472

12.1 Proto-Planetary Nebulae and Planetary Nebula Nucleus Stars 472

12.2 White Dwarf Stars 472

12.3 Novae 482

12.4 Supernovae 497



Chapter 13. Further Techniques 507

13.1 Introduction 507

13.2 Composite Spectra 507

13.3 Classification Systems in the Thermal Infrared 515

13.4 Other Classification Systems 522

13.5 Automated Methods of Spectral Classification 525

13.6 Low Dispersion Techniques and Natural Groups 529



Glossary 541

Appendix A: MK Standard Stars 555

Appendix B: Calibrations of the MK System 565

Appendix C: The Book Website 571

General Index 573

Object Index 585


Richard O. Gray is professor of astronomy at Appalachian
State University. Christopher J. Corbally, SJ, is a vice director of the Vatican Observatory and adjunct associate
professor of astronomy at the University of Arizona.